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History

While Norwegian soldiers are known to have been competing in Nordic skiing since the 19th century, the first major competition in Nordic combined was held in 1892 inOslo at the first Holmenkollen Ski Festival, an event still held annually. In Norway, popularity of the Holmenkollen, and Nordic combined in general, was great. It is still held in all Winter Olympics. There is currently no women's competition sanctioned by the International Ski Federation.

The sport was included at the 1924 Winter Olympics, and has been on the programme ever since. World Championships have been held since 1925.

 

Technical

Current

Current events included in the Olympics are the mens individual NH/10 km and the mens team 4x5. km.

Individual

The most common is the individual race, also known as the Individual Gundersen. Prior to 2008, this event encompassed two jumps from the ski jumping normal hill, and 15 km cross country skiing.

Mass start

In the mass start event, the cross country race is held first. The ski jump made its debut at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2009 in Liberec.

Team

The team event consists of four skiers starting from the ski jump with one jump each, then moving onward to cross-country skiing in a 4 x 5 km relay. It is a pursuit start similar to the individual events. When the event debuted in the 1980s, the event was a 3 x 10 km team event, but that changed following Japan's successes at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1993 in Falun and the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer where the country won by almost four minutes and almost five minutes respectively. The event became a 4 x 5 km team at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1995 in Thunder Bay, Ontario where it has remained ever since.

equipment

Ski Jumping Equipment

Bindings

The binding must be mounted parallel to the run-direction. The binding must be placed in such a way that a maximum 57% of the entire ski length is used as the front part.

Boots

High-backed, flexible yet firm boots with a low cut at the front. They are designed to allow the skier to lean forward during flight.

Connection cord

Part of the binding; a cord that attaches the ski to the boot and prevents the wobbling of skis during flight.

Ski jumping suit

All portions of the ski jumping suit must be made of the same material and must show a certain air permeability. The size of the suit must conform to the body shape in an upright position with certain tolerances.

Jumping skis

Jumping skis are manufactured especially for use on ski jumping hills. Skis with a length of a maximum 146% of the total body height of the competitor may be used. The curvature and shape of the skis is restricted by certain geometric features.

 

Cross-country skiing equipment

Bindings

Bindings secure only the toe of the boot to the ski.

Boots

The skating shoe is fixed to the ski with a binding, holding the toe firm. The rear of the boot is built up to shore up the ankle, which is constantly under pressure in skating technique.

Poles

Long and straight, often reaching up as high as a competitor's chin, with a specially shaped basket designed to allow skiers to push hard and evacuate snow.

Skis

Narrower and lighter than those used in Alpine skiing. They have long, curved ends and rise up slightly in the middle. They can be up to 2 meters long.

Suit

Uses stretch fabric hugging the body, similar to a runner’s training clothing.

Wax

Glide wax is crucial, and determined by snow and weather conditions.

rules

Individual

The most common is the individual race, also known as the Individual Gundersen. Prior to 2008, this event encompassed two jumps from the ski jumping normal hill, and 15 km cross country skiing. Points are scored in ski jumping for distance and style. The distance points being 2 points per meter (1.2 for hills with a K-point of 100 m or farther), and the style points range between 3 and 30 per jump. In the cross-country race, a 15-point lead in the ski jump equals a one-minute head start.

The racers with most ski jumping points will start first, followed by the next best jumper after as much time as there was difference in their jumping scores. This means that the first skier to cross the finish line is the winner of the event. This method of competition, also known as the Gundersen method, was introduced in the mid 1980s.

Before, athletes would start the final race in intervals, and the gold medal would be decided on points. For the 2009 championships, this event changed to a single jump from the normal hill followed by a 10 km cross country race using the Gundersen system. This also applies to the large hill ski jump event, formerly the sprint. At a 28 May 2009 meeting in Dubrovnik, Croatia, it was stated that the 2008 format of one ski jump hill followed by the 10 km cross country skiing event passed the test, resulting in a doubling of television coverage from the previous season.

Mass start

The winner of the cross country race receives 120 points, the others get 15 points subtracted for each minute behind the leader. In the ski jump, no style points are awarded, although jumpers receive fewer points for falling or failing to make a Telemark landing. The winner of this event is determined on a points-based system. 

Team

The Gundersen point total for this as of 2008 has been 1 point equals 1.33 seconds or 45 points per minute.