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History

Jumping was the first Equestrian discipline, which was included in the Paris 1900 Olympic Games. In the 1906 IOC Congress in Athens, the Count Clarence von Rosen, Master of the Horse to the King of Sweden, under the guidelines of the IOC President Pierre De Coubertin, formed a detailed proposal to include all three Equestrian disciplines in the Olympic Games.

The IOC accepted von Rosen’s proposal but it was after a 12-year interval that Jumping, together with Dressage and Eventing were included in the competition schedule of the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm. Since then, these three Olympic disciplines have been part of the Olympic Games, with minor modifications in the way they are conducted.

It is worth mentioning that, until 1952, only male riders who were cavalry officers could participate in the Olympic Games. Starting from 1952, under an IOC decision, these restrictions were lifted, and both men (civilians) and women were given the chance to compete in the three Olympic disciplines, under common rules of evaluation and marking.

The International Equestrian Federation (Fédération Equestre Internationale – FEI), which was founded in 1921, is the governing body of the Equestrian Sport and includes 135 member countries.

 

Technical

Jumping (known as ‘Showjumping in the United Kingdom) takes place in an arena, around a course of approximately 15 fences.

Rider and horse are considered a team and it takes years of structured training for the team to be able to perform at the highest level required across the combined skills required.  These skills include the need for not only agility but also speed, precision, endurance and aptitude to name just a few if they are to clear the obstacles within the time allowed.  In each of the three Equestrian events – Dressage, Jumping and Eventing – the aim is to create a harmonious partnership between horse and rider.

In Jumping, the rider’s horsemanship and the horse’s freedom, energy, skill and obedience are tested over a series of about 15 obstacles, including parallel rails, triple bars, water jumps and simulated stone walls within a specified time period. Their aim is to perform a ‘clear’ round, avoiding penalty points due to a fence knock-down, a refusal or passing of the designated time to complete the course.

Jumping courses are now highly technical, requiring boldness, scope, power, accuracy and control from both horse and rider. The fences are designed so that if the horse hits them as they jump them, part or all of the fence will knock down and the rider will be penalised with ‘faults’.

Faults are also awarded if the rider does not complete the course within a set time. The winner is the rider with the fewest faults; if there is a draw, the result is decided by jumping a shortened course as fast as possible without knocking fences down (“against the clock”).

The Team medal is decided over three rounds by four riders and the Individual medals over five rounds.  

equipment

Rider’s Clothing

Dressage: Top hat or hard hat, tailcoat with white shirt and stock, white breeches, long leather boots and gloves

Cross Country: Hard hat, shirt and stock with body protector and air jacket (optional), breeches, long leather boots and gloves

Showjumping: Hard hat, show jacket with shirt, white breeches, long leather boots

 

Horse’s Equipment

Saddle

The purpose of the saddle is to give the rider stability while sitting on the horse. Saddle types differ to allow and permit different Equestrian activities. The Jumping and Eventing saddle is forward cut with knee rolls for security while cantering and jumping. The Dressage saddle has a deeper seat and straight flaps for close contact during the refined movements. The saddle is made on a steel, glass fibre or wood frame, usually covered with leather with padded panels and seat for comfort of horse and rider. 

Girth

The girth holds the saddle firmly in place on the horses back. It is similar to a belt.

Martingales

The purpose of the martingale is to help prevent the horse raising his head too high and is only permitted in jumping and cross country events. Horses can also wear breastplates in these disciplines to secure the saddle. 

Bridle and Bit

Riders use their seat, legs and reins to communicate with the horse. The principle contact being via the bit in the horses mouth, held comfortably in place by a bridle. There are different kinds of bits and riders choose accordingly to what best suits their horse. 

 

rules

The first competition day, sees the first
qualifying round for the Final Individual Competition and decides
the starting order of Round 1 (the first qualifying round) of the Team
Competition.

After this competition, there will be a rest day.
The Team Competition Round 1 and Round 2 take place on the second
and third competition day, and also counts as the second and third
qualifier for the Final Individual Competition.
In the team competition, the team with the lowest total number of
penalties from its three best placed riders in Round 1 and Round 2
respectively will be the winner. In case of a tie for either 1st, 2nd or 3rd
place, there will be a jump-off against the clock.



The Final Individual Competition will take place on
the fourth competition day. Round A of this competition is compulsory
for the 35 best placed riders and horses (including those with equality of
penalties for the 35th place) according to the cumulative penalties over
the first and second qualifying rounds. The 20 best placed competitors (including those with equality of penalties
for the 20th place) will advance to Round B of the Final Individual
Competition.

Individual medals will be determined by adding together
for each competitor the penalties incurred in Rounds A and B. If there is a
tie, the penalties and time incurred in the jump-off will decide the individual medals.

 

Jargon buster

 

  • Fault: A set number of penalty points for making a mistake; such as knocking a fence down or a refusal or run out in the jumping events.
  • Schooling area: The warm-up area where the horses are trained and exercised prior to competition. 
  • Run-out: When a horse gets out of the rider’s control and runs around a fence instead of jumping it.
  • Half Pass: A forward and sideways Dressage movement where the horse crosses its legs as it moves sideways.
  • Gallop: The fastest movement of a horse - equivalent to running.

 

Team HeroesEntire Team

Peter Charles competed at both Barcelona 1992 and Atlanta 1996 for Ireland, qualifying through his Irish mother, and his individual European gold in 1995 was the nation’s first ever.

Charles originally represented Britain and swit...

A two-time winner at the Pony European Championships and one-time winner at the Young Rider European Championships, Ben Maher will made his second Olympic appearance in London 2012.

Maher has competed at senior European Championships tw...

Nick Skelton joined fellow equestrian rider Mary King and archer Alison Williamson in making his sixth Olympic appearance for Britain at London 2012.

However unlike King and Williamson, who have competed at every single Games since Barc...

Scott Brash was the only member of the jumping team who made their Olympic debut in London 2012 but he was part of the British team for the World Equestrian Games in 2010 where he rode Intertoy Z.

He rode Hello Sanctos at London 2012 an...

Our Results

Total: 10 medals
  • 2 Gold
  • 3 Silver
  • 5 Bronze
Stockholm 1912
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Paris 1924
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Amsterdam 1928
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Los Angeles 1932
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Berlin 1936
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
London 1948
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 1 Bronze
Helsinki 1952
  • 1 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Melbourne 1956
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 1 Bronze
Rome 1960
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 1 Bronze
Tokyo 1964
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 1 Bronze
Mexico City 1968
  • 0 Gold
  • 1 Silver
  • 1 Bronze
Munich 1972
  • 0 Gold
  • 1 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Montreal 1976
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Moscow 1980
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Los Angeles 1984
  • 0 Gold
  • 1 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Seoul 1988
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Barcelona 1992
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Atlanta 1996
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Sydney 2000
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Athens 2004
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
Beijing 2008
  • 0 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
London 2012
  • 1 Gold
  • 0 Silver
  • 0 Bronze
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